Chemistry

Chemistry

Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter.[1][2] Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms (or groups of atoms) and various forms of energy (e.g. photochemical reactions, changes in phases of matter, separation of mixtures, properties of polymers, etc.). Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and biology.[3][4] Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.[5] The etymology of the word chemistry has been much disputed.[6] The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world, particularly the Middle East The word chemistry comes from the word alchemy, an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine; it is commonly thought of as the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold.[8] The word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kimia (----). The Arabic term is borrowed from the Greek --? or ---.[9][10] This may have Egyptian origins. Many believe that al-kimia is derived from --?, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient n me of Egypt in Egyptian.[9] Alternately, al-kimia may be derived from ---, meaning "cast together".[11] An alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry". Ancient Egyptians pioneered the art of synthetic "wet" chemistry up to 4,000 years ago.[19] By 1000 BC ancient civilizations were using technologies that formed the basis of the various branches of chemistry such as; extracting metal from their ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, making pigments for cosmetics and painting, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, making cheese, dying cloth, tanning leather, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze. Democritus' atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus (341–270 BCE). The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgy—the art and science of processing ores to get metals (e.g. metallurgy in ancient India). The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though the underlying principles were not well understood—it was thought to be a transformation rather than purification. Many scholars in those days thought it reasonable to believe that there exist means for transforming cheaper (base) metals into gold. This gave way to alchemy and the search for the Philosopher's Stone which was believed to bring about such a transformation by mere touch.